B. Individual activities integrated into a Coastal Plan

Institutional mechanism for ICZM

Article 7 (Co-ordination) of the ICZM Protocol requires the CPs to ensure institutional co-ordination, where necessary through appropriate bodies or mechanisms, in order to avoid sectoral approaches and facilitate comprehensive approaches. B&H is in the process of ratification of the ICZM Protocol and such co-ordination is at present very vague or non-existent. The key objective of this activity is to enable the environment for putting in place an institutional framework as a multi-sectoral yet cohesive and effective institutional structure/model for integrated coastal zone management.

Actions to be implemented

  • Analysis of the current legal framework as well as institutional roles and responsibilities and identification of obstacles to effective management of the coastal zone;
  • Mapping of the relevant stakeholders and analysis of their role in coastal zone management;
  • Preparation of a model for institutional structure for the coastal zone management (possibly through further elaboration and improvement of co-ordination mechanisms, possibly through establishment of new and/or restructuring of existing institutions) with a view to the ICZM Protocol requirements and based on examples of good practice in other countries;
  • Support for making the proposed institutional structure operational, including identification of necessary changes in respective laws and regulations.

Main output

  1. The main output of this activity is a proposal of an agreed model of institutional structure for coastal zone management with defined responsibilities and resources.

Responsible for implementation: PAP/RAC, National Project Co-ordinator.

Marine habitats and protected area

The Mediterranean zone of B&H is a mosaic of various habitats, ecosystems and numerous forms and levels of human activity. The relatively small area of the B&H coastline is priceless and it forms a significant part of the national heritage. The main objectives of the activity are to undertake, together with the relevant stakeholders:

  • a first gap analysis between the available information and information needed for the identification and characterization of marine key habitats and their conservation and management in B&H territorial waters;
  • an overview of the marine biological diversity along the B&H coast, through a rapid assessment survey following the IMAP ecological objectives related to biodiversity (EO1) and non-indigenous species (EO2);
  • a preliminary mapping of the marine key habitats and flagship species (marine mammals, sea turtles and seabirds) distributional range, that will be useful for the 2023 Mediterranean Quality Status Report (MED QSR 2023).

Actions to be implemented

The Activity could be implemented following two steps:

  • Step 1: Elaboration of the gap analysis to identify the main gaps in knowledge and potential areas of interest to be investigated in more detail during the field survey. During the gap analysis, the data available will be analysed and assessed following the requirement of the IMAP ecological objectives related to biodiversity (EO1) and non-indigenous species (EO2).
  • Step 2: Undertaking a rapid assessment survey for the identification of benthic habitats, fish assemblages, and flagship species populations, and of human activities along the B&H coast. The assessment is aimed at supporting the definition of specific protection/management measures.

Main outputs

  1. Report on the available knowledge, Gap Analysis and detailed execution plan;
  2. Rapid assessment survey of marine habitats to help prioritize the suitable areas needing the application of protection/management measures and/or the establishment of a marine protected area;
  3. Preliminary maps of the marine habitats and flagship species distributional range.

Responsible for implementation: SPA/RAC, National Project Coordinator

Monitoring marine and coastal environment

The current national monitoring programme of seawater in B&H is not fully in line with the IMAP, and it is mainly focused on monitoring of the physicochemical parameters in sea water and microbiological parameters related to berthing water quality. So the objectives are:

  • Support implementation of the national IMAP-based monitoring programme for Pollution and Marine Litter Cluster;
  • Conduct implementation of IMAP CI 16 on Length of coastline subject to physical disturbance due to the influence of man-made structures.

Actions to be implemented

  • Support implementation of the national IMAP-based monitoring programme related to Pollution and Marine Litter Cluster
    1. Define the field survey programme for 2021 in line with the national IMAP-based monitoring programme for Pollution Cluster to support collection of monitoring data for IMAP Ecological Objectives 5, 9 and 10;
    2. Organize field survey programme in 2021;
    3. Report monitoring data obtained in field and report data into IMAP Pilot Info System;
  • Implement indicator on coastal ecosystems and landscapes Common indicator 16: Length of coastline subject to physical disturbance due to the influence of man-made structures (EO8).

Main outputs

  1. Transmission of the report on the activities undertaken with regards to implementation of the national IMAP-based monitoring programme related to Pollution in 2021;
  2. Reported monitoring data obtained in 2021 in the framework of implementation of the national IMAP-based monitoring programme related to Pollution in 2021;
  3. Map (shape file) presenting natural and artificial segments of the coastline related to CI 16.

Responsible for implementation: MEDPOL, PAP/RAC, relevant national institutions.

National Contingency Plan

As a Party to the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean, 1995 (Barcelona Convention) and its Protocol concerning co-operation in combatting pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by oil and other harmful substances in cases of Emergency, 1976 (Emergency Protocol), B&H is required to prepare a National Contingency Plan (NCP).

Actions to be implemented

The activity consists in the development of the draft NCP by REMPEC, with the support of a Consultant, in co-ordination with the national competent and local authorities. The activity includes the organisation, in B&H, of:

  • Two (2) meetings with the national competent and local authorities and the consultant to ensure continuous follow-up of the process of the development of the NCP, in concertation with the relevant authorities.
  • Two (2) national workshops to be organised back-to-back to the above meetings targeting Senior management personnel and other stakeholders to provide the knowledge required to manage a pollution incident and to test the procedures defined in the draft NCP before its finalisation.

Main outputs

The existence of reliable national systems for preparedness and response, including administrative organisation, trained personnel, basic equipment and in particular contingency plans for combating marine pollution incidents, is considered to be the single most important factor which determines the effectiveness and the success of response to marine pollution incidents. Hence, the expected outputs of this activity are:

  1. the designation of:
    • the competent national authority or authorities with responsibility for oil pollution preparedness and response;
    • the national operational contact point or points, which shall be responsible for the receipt and transmission of pollution reports;
    • an authority which is entitled to act on behalf of the State to request assistance or to decide to render the assistance requested;
  2. a national contingency plan for preparedness and response which includes the organizational relationship of the various bodies involved, whether public or private;
  3. a programme of exercises for marine pollution response organizations and training of relevant personnel;
  4. detailed plans and communication capabilities for responding to an oil pollution incident.

Responsible for implementation: REMPC, relevant national institutions.

Sustainable tourism: coastal – hinterland

Neum is the only coastal municipality of B&H. It provides about 10,000 beds for tourists . Nevertheless, tourism activity in the Municipality is strictly confined to the coast, and the hinterland is not exploited. The main objective of the activity will be to produce, together with the relevant stakeholders, a document entitled “Strategic orientations for sustainable tourism development of the Municipality of Neum” in order to improve tourism development on the coastal zone while developing a proper tourism offer in the hinterland, i.e. diversify the tourism offer.

Actions to be implemented

The document entitled “Strategic orientations for sustainable tourism development of the Municipality of Neum” will be prepared, based on a participatory process involving all relevant stakeholders. The document will include a proposition for setting up a Destination Management Organization, as well as to define its missions. Also, some concrete proposals on how to implement the strategy will be proposed in a form of project proposals to be submitted to applications for funding. The activity will include:

  • an analysis of current state of tourism in the Municipality, on the coast as well in the hinterland, the main problems and potentials;
  • defining feasible types of tourism offer that can be developed in the hinterland as connecting points with coastal tourism;
  • linkages with other economic activities (such as agriculture), cultural heritage, natural values, etc. that can diversify the offer and create additional economic values including jobs;
  • proposal of the strategic orientations including concrete project proposals for its implementation.

The activity will be supported by consultation meetings with the relevant stakeholders and two training workshops targeting tourism actors in order to familiarize them with the concept of sustainable tourism as well as to share with them successful stories of sustainable tourism experiences which could be reproduced in the context of Neum Municipality.

Main outputs

  1. The report entitled “Strategic orientations for sustainable tourism development of the Municipality of Neum”;
  2. Reports of the consultation meetings with the stakeholders and training material.

Responsible for implementation: PAP/RAC, National Project Co-ordinator.

Climate change adaptation

The Mediterranean region is a climate change hot spot and it is widely accepted that with current projections there will be a number of climate impacts, including increased summer temperatures and decreased annual precipitation, increased water-related extreme phenomena like floods and persistent droughts, enhanced water scarcity and increased desertification, the loss of, or shift in vegetation zones, and threatened food production. Some of these impacts are already evident in the Municipality of Neum, especially those related to extreme weather events, such as flooding, and problems related to agriculture. Tourist facilities concentrated at the very coastline may face the impacts of sea level rise. It is, therefore, critically important that research work advances the understanding of how climate variability will impact the coastal zone community, natural resources and marine and coastal biodiversity. The objectives are twofold: The first is to raise awareness of the issue of climate variability and change by clearly identifying time scale and cumulative impacts of threats coming from the climate variability, as well as by identifying the vulnerable areas. The second is to promote the use of ICZM as an effective tool to deal with the impacts of climate variability and change in coastal zone by mainstreaming them into sectoral programmes/plans.

Actions to be implemented

Presentation of climate change threats and various options of risks that will affect the coastal area and its hinterland in particular for the following sectors: tourism, urban planning, water management, agriculture, biodiversity protection;

  • Analysis of the most important sectors to be affected and analysing their vulnerability to climate change;
  • Proposals of adaptation measures to be included in the formulation of sectoral development plans/programmes.

Main outputs

  1. Report of the future risks and vulnerability of the priority sectors to climate change;
  2. Recommendations for adaptation measures for the coastal area in general and more specific for the most relevant sectors (such as tourism, urban planning, water management, agriculture, biodiversity protection).

Responsible for implementation: PAP/RAC, relevant national institutions, National Project Co-ordinator.

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